Q: Are there any bad point about Warajevo 2.51. compared to earlier releases?
A: Not compared with releases 2.5 and 2.0. In comparing to 1.5, Warajevo 2.51. needs a bit of faster computer (33 MHz or more) to work correctly.

Q: Is Warajevo 2.51. still a freeware program?
A: Yes, absolutely, but read the next question.

Q: Is it possible to get the source files of the emulator?
A: Yes, donate 80 DM or more to us, and you will get the sources.

Q: I have problems during loading from the tape using a Sound Blaster. Why?
A: You must use a mixer setting program to turn off everything except the line input on one channel (mono). Such programs are probably supplied with your sound card, but loading through Sound Blaster is not very reliable, due to very problematic timing of this sound card.

Q: How I can get the 'B G Services' tape interface?
A: Unfortunantely, Brian Gaff no longer produces these interfaces, unlike written in our documentation. You can make this interface by yourself using the diagram which may be found in the file DIAGRAM.Z80 which is given with Lunter's Z80 emulator, or can be downloaded from the following URL address:

Q: Warajevo supports mixing of 80x86 machine code with Z80 code. Isn't this a little bit insecure? The idea of downloading a Spectrum snapshot only to find it had an 8086 virus bit in it that formatted my hard drive is a bit worrying. Am I just being paranoid?
A: An option is implemented for switching off the possibility of patching 80x86 code into Z80 code, for security (if this option is included, an error message will appear if the emulator tries to switch into 8086 mode). In release 2.0. the option had a bug, now it works correctly.

Q: I have TR DOS - it is a disk operating system and is very popular among the Speccy Fans in Russia (in Moscow in any case). I have almost all information about the hard/software for this DOS and have written some programs which run better on it. There are many disk versions of the games. It is not CPM but it is not already the tape. Maybe you could include this interface in the Warajevo program?
A: We heard about TR-DOS at the same time we got the emulator SP_UKV. However, we believe that a much better idea is to emulate more "official" drives: microdrive and disc drive of Spectrum +3 and +2A. Both devices are produced by Sinclair Research and they are better supported by software. Microdrive emulation code is already implemented, while emulation of the Spectrum +3 is planed in the next release.

Q: I don't think (I don't want to think) that you have ignored TR-DOS interface due to the political reason...
A: No, we haven't any political reason to ignore it!

Q: Which is the easiest way to load and run Spectrum-related file formats (like Z80, SNA, BLK, SLT, SNP, TAP, TZX, VOC etc.) in the Warajevo emulator?
A: Enter the environment (by typing WARAJEVO), then click on the 'Start' button (or press Alt+S if you have no mouse), select the file which you want to load, then press 'OK'. The selected file will be immediately loaded into the emulator and started if the file is Z80, TAP or MDR, or it will be converted into the Warajevo format, loaded and started. The conversion is very fast, nearly instantaneous, except for the TZX and VOC format (they are a bit slower).

Q: Warajevo 2.51. now has nearly all features of registered version of Lunter Z80 emulator except Disciple and Plus D interfaces and Warajevo is free! Why you don't implement Disciple and Plus D emulation?
A: Mainly because the Disciple and Plus D are copyrighted. We have no licence to implement them.

Q: Why doesn't Warajevo 2.0. support perfect emulation of AY chip (the changing of noise pseudo-frequency and digital sound), like in the X128 emulator (SAOM version)?
A: We didn't even know about digitized sound effects until a few months ago. In any case, we didn't have enough RAM memory to allocate buffers for sound samples without various DOS memory extenders (DPMI etc.). We wanted to prevent usage of any such extenders. In the meantime, however, we have discovered one method which allows exact AY emulation without allocating additional memory, so starting from release 2.51. exact emulation of AY chip is implemented.

Q: Why does Warajevo 2.0. create a huge temporary file during the loading of TZX files?
A: The reason is simple: shortage of RAM. Also, it is true that creating a temporary file takes time, but loading it later will then be much faster than in any other emulator. In release 2.51. TZX compatibility is drastically improved and many bugs are removed.

Q: You say that TZX compatibility is improved. But some TZX files still don't work...
A: Be aware of the fact that starting from release 2.5. the rules of TZX loading may be customized. The default setting allow very fast loading of normal programs and slow loading of non-standard saved programs. However, such settings do not achieve full compatibility. To enable full compatibility, mark the checkbox 'Sample normal blocks rather than copy them' in the 'TZX conversion setup' dialog, which is clear by default. Or, put the switch /&T32767 into the main configuration file DEFAULT.CFG. For more information, see the manual. If some TZX file fails after setting this, use the axiom of existence: "There's always exists at least one bug...".

Q: How I can speed up TZX loading without any loss of compatibility?
A: Mark the checkbox 'Maximal loading speed' in the 'Speed' dialog in the 'Setup' menu in the environment, or use the /%LMAX switch.

Q: I have many programs in TAP formats, but when I try to start them using 'Start' button, they crashes (especially demos). Why?
A: Some programs need a 128K emulator, and some programs need a 48K emulator. A TAP file has no information as to which version of the emulator is needed, so you must try both. Be aware of fact that some programs need a 128K emulator but load in '48 Basic'. Also, some 128K demos exist which need a very special method for loading: go into '128 Basic', type USR0 [ENTER], then LOAD "" [ENTER].

Q: A number of programs in TAP and especially TZX format, crash during loading when I try to load them using the 'Start' button. However, when I then reset the emulator, rewind the tape file to the beginning and try loading using LOAD "", they load and run correctly. Whats happening?
A: Oh, this is a very ugly problem, but fortunately it is easily solvable. Some protected programs expect that the initial screen attribute before loading is black on white. When 'Start' button is used, we set the initial screen attribute to white on black (for an aesthetic reason). The solution is easy: put the switch /Y56 into the configuration file DEFAULT.CFG to override our attribute settings if you often have such problems.

Q: I have a program 'Insane' which crashes on Warajevo, and works on all other emulators. Why?
A: Try loading in '48 Basic'. This program crashes in '128 Basic' even on a real Spectrum 128K, but not on other emulators, due to one effect (IN 32765) which is implemented only in the Warajevo emulator and not on other emulators. Silly?

Q: I try to run the Warajevo 2.51 on my VGA card with the monochrome monitor. Previous releases works correctly, but Warajevo 2.51 does not show any sense picture!?
A: Remove the WARAJEVO.PAL file. This file is optimized for the color monitors and may cause problems on monochrome monitors.

Q: I wonder if somebody else has problems with Warajevo and Lunter's Z80 emulator for PC. The problem is register loading. When I load the D register it always changes its value for 205 (decimal). This is especially terrible when I do compares with the CP opcode.
A: This appears only after drinking a lot of wine (or whiskey). Of course, this answer is a joke, but the question was real!?

Q: Can I change the emulation speed using the WARAJEVO emulator?
A: Such an option exists, using the /% switch. Notice that Warajevo 2.51. is a real-time emulator.

Q: I put the switch /%LMAX into a batch file, and the emulator reports 'Invalid command parameter'. When I try the same thing outside of a batch file, it works. What's happennig?
A: Percent is reserved character in batch files. Double the percent, e.g. use /%%LMAX instead if you want to use this switch inside a batch file.

Q: I am running the emulator in native DOS mode (i.e. shutdown & restart in DOS mode under Windows '95). If I try to run under '95, I get a warning that the processor is in virtual 8086 mode, and if I try to carry on, I get a garbled screen. Why?
A: Don't try to run the emulator in windowed mode, unless you're using the switches which force CGA video mode. The best solution is to make a PIF file which tells the program to use full screen. Warajevo 2.51 includes such PIF files in the package.

Q: I run the Warajevo emulator under Windows 95. Usually all work fine, but with some Spectrum programs (for example, Elite) the emulator crashes with message 'This program has performed an illegal operation and will be terminated'. What happens, and is there some solution?
A: This is a problem which is described in the manual called the 'Wrapping problem', so read the manual for more details. Starting from release 2.0. Windows compatibility has improved, but this problem is still possible. In such cases, do not run these program under Windows. Instead, shutdown into DOS mode. We are now working on solution of this problem, and we hope that it will be solved in release 2.6.

Q: Why does the documentation in English have so many grammar errors?
A: Because we always write the documentation in a hurry and we are not language experts. If you want, correct it and send the corrected files to us. We will be very happy.

NOTE: In the latest release, the documentation has been corrected by Lee Dowling after reading the above question in previous FAQ's. Lee is English, so the grammar should be a lot better.

LEE: I find it amazing that the English was so good in the first place, my Sarajevian isn't even close to their English!

Q: Why do some options in the emulator not work with Lunter TAP files, but only with Warajevo TAP files?
A: Put simply, the Warajevo TAP format is much richer than the Lunter TAP format, so the Lunter TAP format can not support so many features.

Q: Can the Warajevo TAP format store all kinds of programs (like TZX files), including speedlock protected programs, etc.
A: This was a frequent question in discussions on the Internet, and we saw many wrong answers. The correct answer is: yes! Starting from Warajevo 2.0, the Warajevo TAP format allows the storage of all type of records, including music records. However, TZX file format is more compact for storing non-standard saved programs. Before release 2.0, the Warajevo TAP format didn't have any more power than Lunter's TAP format for storing programs. The possibility of loading some non-standard saved programs in release 1.5. was possible due to an intelligent algorithm in the emulator itself, not due to extra information in a TAP file!

Q: How I can make an empty Warajevo or Lunter TAP file?
A: To make an empty Warajevo tape, use the option 'Select' in the 'Tape-files' menu, then enter the filename. If this file doesn't exist, an empty one will be created with that name. There is no option for creating an empty Lunter tape, but this may be easyly performed from DOS. For example, the DOS command


will create an empty tape EMPTY.TAP in Lunter's format.

Q: When I try to convert TAP files from Lunter to Warajevo format, the program doesn't allow me to select a Lunter TAP file, or gives message "End of file passed". Why?
A: Before release 2.0, this was the most common question, and the answer was the old rule: "If nothing else helps, then read the manual". As the users don't read the manual nor the help file (these files contain the answer), they don't understand the correct method for performing this task. Starting from release 2.0. we have adapted to the most of the users, and implemented two methods for performing this conversion: using the method that we came up with (like in earlier releases), and using the method which the most users thought to be the correct method. We hope that you will be happy.

Q: I converted a Warajevo .Z80 file to a Warajevo .TAP file and then the Warajevo .TAP file to a Lunter Z80 .TAP file, but when I load the Z80 .TAP with the Z80 emulator 2.21 the program doesn't work and the emulator crashes, Why?
A: Oh, this is a problem in Lunter's emulator, not in ours. Lunter's tape emulation routine is not as flexible as ours. The loader which is made when the snapshot is converted to a TAP file has a dirty structure (to reducing screen damaging as much as possible) which works fine on the original Spectrum (and on our emulator), but not on Lunter's emulator due to a not-so-well-emulated load routine in his emulator. This was a common question, so we included an option which solves this problem. Before conversion, activate the radio button 'Ready to convert to Z80 emulator' which appears in the dialog for the conversion, and everything will be OK.

Q: OK, there is an option for conversion Z80 -> TAP, but how I can convert a TAP file into a Z80 file?
A: These formats are essentially different, but in many cases there is one simple possibility. Select the tape, type LOAD "", and when the loading finishes, press F7. This will create a SNAP.Z80 file which is a rough equivalent to the source of the TAP file.

Q: How I can view screen dump (SCR) files with the Warajevo emulator?
A: Enter the environment, press the 'Start' button, and select the desired SCR file.

Q: How I can make a screen dump (SCR) file from a program?
A: Press F3 to enter the monitor. Give the command S16384 6912. This will create a screen dump on the tape. Then enter the environment, use the option 'Extract' in the 'Block' submenu in the 'Tape-files' menu to extract the saved block onto a disk (check the radio button 'Flagbyte is Extension'). This will create a file with extension .255 on the disk. Finnaly, rename this file to the desired name and give it a .SCR extension.

Q: I load a snapshot file (for example, 'Dizzy-8'), but the sprite jumps up and down non-stop, and the keyboard don't work. Why?
A: Such snapshots are saved with Kempston joystick active. In such cases, run the emulator with /JK switch (or switch on the option 'Kempston joystick by cursor keys' in the environment).

Q: I have problems with the keyboard in some programs (some keys does not work).
A: Again, the problem is in the joystick settings. Try changing the joystick settings in the environment, and everything should be OK.

Q: I have problems with conversion the "World of Spectrum" SGD database in the Warajevo format.
A: Oh, we know it. First, there was a bug which cause "Object not initialized" error if the SGD.INI file is not present. This is fixed now. Second, and more serious, the amount of the records in the Warajevo data base is limited. Simply, we stored sorting indexes and some other data in the RAM to speed up working with the database. But, the amount of the RAM under DOS is limited (does anybody remember stupid Microsoft sentence: "640 KB will be enough for everything"?). When we developed Warajevo, we simply didn't expect databases with more than 3000 records! In release 2.51 we included options which may ignore sorting and keeping of producer names and file names in the RAM if the database is too huge, so the whole WOS database can be converted. Of course, this is only a first aid, not an ideal solution. We still searching for the better solution.

Q: I have problems with the Sinclair Network emulation in the Warajevo 2.0. emulator.
A: First, check whether the shared interface net file is accessible to all emulators which take part in the session. If everything is OK with the net file, try changing the emulation parameters. Problems are very likely with this, so read the manual very carefully if you want to use network emulation.

Q: Why is network emulation so slow?
A: Try to make it faster in your emulator...

Q: Why do you emulate the network on an I/O level? I think that much better speed and reliability could be achieved using traps in the ZX Interface ROM, or some similar method...
A: Of course, but I/O level of the emulation is prefered for two reasons. First, there are at least two versions of the ZX Interface 1 ROM, with slightly different network routines (in the older version there is also a bug) and which lay on different addresses, so traps must be located on different addresses when different ROM files are used. Second, and more importantly, some programs copy the ROM net input routine into RAM and correct the bug which was present in the first release of the ZX Interface 1 ROM. Using I/O level emulation, such programs work, but with traps they will not work. Maybe the best solution is something like an edge recognizer...

Q: I think that it is better idea to send every keystroke through the net rather than emulating the Sinclair Network. This would allow you to play any two-player arcade game through the net...
A: Don't you think that you want a bit too much?

Q: I have Sound Blaster with MIDI, and the MIDI emulation does not work correctly. I use Warajevo with the /SB switch. What's wrong?
A: Be aware of the fact that we use General MIDI, not MPU-401. Also, check whether your musical instruments are set up correctly.

Q: I have "Even God doesn't know which" model of Sound Blaster compatible sound card. The option /SB does not work on my card. Why?
A: We have very bad experiences with Sound Blaster clones. Any program which does not use the full standard protocol to access the DSP processor may fail on some clones but the full standard protocol is a bit slow for some purposes. We use a method which is not tested on too many cards, so we accept that it is possible that there are some models of sound card which is not compatible with the Warajevo emulator. We hope that such cases are rarities.

Q: Why WARAJEVO emulator don't work on my VGA card?
A: There are many models of VGA cards which are not fully compatible with a real VGA card. Due to bugs into some BIOS's (for example, the Trident VGA BIOS), and the very non-standard video modes which are used in the emulator, we use low-level I/O instructions to set up the video mode. Unfortunately, it seems that this will not work on absolutely all VGA cards (you can see that even Lunter's Z80 emulator has problems with the Trident VGA card with which our emulator works fine). Starting from release 1.5. we changed the routine for setting up the video mode, and tested it on many computers, so we hope that there will not be any problems. But only God knows.

Q: How good is the AY chip emulation on the PC beeper?
A: We thought that a noticeable improvement from Warajevo 1.5. wasn't possible, i.e. we thought that our AY chip emulation is the best which can be done with only the PC beeper. Some PC programs like 'Scream tracker', 'Visual player' etc. have much better sound, but the routines used in such programs seemed (for us) to be impossible to implement into the emulator. However, we got a 'Commodore 64' emulator (aarrgh!), which showed us up. It implemented nearly perfect emulation of the SID sound chip (which is even more complex than the AY chip), using only a PC beeper! Starting from release 2.5. we tried to make something similar (switch /SX). Try it and see...

Q: I have problems with the ZX Printer emulation with some 24-pin printers and even with some Epson printers. However, printing from a word processor (for example from Tasword) works fine.
A: The printer must be Epson FX-80 (or HP Laser Jet) compatible for ZX Printer emulation. Using of Z command in the monitor requires an Epson FX-80 compatible printer (HP Laser Jet is not implemented for this yet). Printing from a word processor is not ZX printer emulation, it uses the RS-232 interface, and the transfer of standard ASCII codes. This is compatible with all printers, even inkjet printers.

Q: Why didn't you implement Ink Jet printer support (in ZX Printer emulation, and in Z command in the monitor)?
A: We will in the future.

Q: How well does the WARAJEVO emulator work on OS/2?
A: Lunter's emulator locks the keyboard on OS/2, but it seems that the WARAJEVO emulator works fine on OS/2.

Q: How I can use the RS232 socket on my Spectrum 128 to transfer programs to the PC and how I can make an appropriate cable for connecting them?
A: This is a common question. But the only answer is: read the manual carefully.

Q: Does RS232 transfer work with the Spectrum +2A/+3 RS232/MIDI port?
A: Of course, this is the same port as on an ordinary Spectrum 128.

Q: I read in the documentation for the Spanish Emulator by P. Gimeno that it is very dangerous to plug anything with more than 5 volts into the parallel socket of a PC. But my Spectrum +2's manual reports a voltage of +12 volts in it's RS232/MIDI port. Does this affect me?
A: No, You are correct, but RS232/MIDI must be connected to the serial, not parallel, socket on a PC.

Q: Why you don't emulate Multiface 128?
A: This is not problem to implement, but the Multiface 128 ROM is copyright protected, we have no rights to do it.

Q: Why you don't emulate the Spectrum +3 or +2A?
A: This is our great wish, but we don't have enough time to work on it. We hope that it will be implemented in the future.

Q: Why must I press SYMBOL SHIFT (e.g. ALT) + O key to get sign ';'? Why can't I simply press the ';' key on the keyboard?
A: We were a bit too lazy to implement this. Also, the position of these signs is not fully standardized. There are many keyboard layouts, and these signs do not always have the same scan codes. For example, in Bosnia and Herzegovina, many PC computers (including ours) have Croatian keybord layout, on which these signs are located differently.

Q: Is it possible to convert a .Z80 file to a .COM file?
A: The pseudo-compiler ZXCOMP included with the WARAJEVO package can convert .Z80 files into standalone .EXE files. For users, there is no important difference between .COM and .EXE files.

Q: Does ZXCOMP really convert Z80 machine code into 8086 machine code, or does it use some trick?
A: Of course it's a trick. If you have any knowledge about such things, you must know that real conversion is nearly impossible for many reasons (self-modifying code for example). So, ZXCOMP converts Z80 snapshots into a kind of P-code (more precisely, packed Z80 code) and links it with a run time module (which includes a P-coded ROM image too) which interprets it. This module is about 32K long for 48K snapshots and about 48K for 128K snapshots. P-code is usually about half size of full snapshot length. We must say that well-known "compiler" CLIPPER is not a real compiler too. It does a similar thing and nobody knows it. That's why ZXCOMP look like a real compiler!

Q: Saving and loading inside programs compiled with ZXCOMP is very limited. Why?
A: The answer is simple, this capability is limited to make the run-time interpreter as small as possible. So, sometimes compiling with /TAPE or even /TAPE! can fail, and then you must hack it using the built-in monitor.

Q: How I can convert Lunter's Z80 format to the Warajevo .Z80 format (for example, for use with the compiler ZXCOMP)?
A: There are many methods. We will describe the method which works with all releases. First you must load the wanted (Lunter's) snapshot into Warajevo, by typing command SPEC48 /R<snap_name> on the DOS prompt. To convert this file to a Warajevo Z80 file (Warajevo Z80 file is in fact a Lunter's 2.0 Z80 file) press F7 in the emulator. This will create file SNAP.Z80 in Warajevo format. Starting from release 1.5. you also have options in the environment for doing such things, read the next question (and answer of course).

Q: Why does the emulator say "Incorrect hardware version" or "Incorrect snapshot file" with some snapshots?
A: Snapshot files exist which contain features which are not implemented in Warajevo emulator (Lunter's SamRam, Disciple and Plus D, snapshots with ROM images by Pedro M. R. Salas, etc.). To convert such snapshots into the correct Warajevo snapshot format, use options 'Z80Snaps' -> 'Convert' -> 'Z80 (48K) <-> Z80 (128K)' -> 'Any Z80 to Z80 48K without interface 1'. Read more about it in the manual.

Q: When I compiled using the ZXCOMP Manic Miner or Jet Set Willy which have been snapshot'ed from Lunter's emulator, jump was turned on non-stop. Why?
A: This is due to the joystick emulation which is different on ours and Lunter's emulator. Manic Miner (and JSW too) test for the presence of a joystick only when the initial screen is displayed, then it only acts in accordance to this first test. To correct this, load snapshot into Warajevo, press BREAK in these games to go to initial screen, then re-snap the game again. This snapshot can then be compiled correctly.

Q: Warajevo does not correctly emulate Issue2/Issue3 effect. When I try to detect which version of Spectrum Warajevo emulates, it seems that this is not either Issue2 nor Issue3...
A: Yes, you are right, but we think that this is just an advantage of the Warajevo emulator. Except in the tape loading or the sample loading mode, the EAR bit in port 254 is random, which will satisfie both the programs which requires Issue2 and programs which requires Issue3 (because the keyboard reading is always performed in the loop), so the user need not to worry about issueness...

Q: I can not select any option from the "DockFiles" menu in the environment!
A: These options work only in the Timex emulation mode. Use "Setup", "Emulator" to set Timex mode.

Q: I have some LROS and AROS programs as binary files. How I can load them into the Warajevo emulator?
A: You must convert them into the DCK files, using options in the "DockFiles" menu. For more informations, consult the manual, or the help file.

Q: How I can make a single DCK file which is loaded in both HOME and DOCK banks?
A: First make a DCK file which will be loaded into the DOCK bank (named for example FIRST.DCK), and a DCK file which will be loaded into the HOME bank (named for example SECOND.DCK). This may be done using options in "DockFiles" menu. Then, use option "Merge Docks" in the same menu, or simply concatenate these files using DOS:


Q: You told that Warajevo will not be ported to other platforms, but Samir realized Tezxas for Motorola 68000 based calculators TI-89 and TI-92+.
A: Concepts of these two emulators are quite different. Tezxas is not susbset of Warajevo, it is written from scratch with no intention to reach capabilities of Warajevo.

Q: How good political and economical situation in your country is today?
A: Political situation is not very stable, there are still some "critical" zones (like towns Mostar and Brcko). The economical situation is better than five years ago, but it is still really terrible. Country is dependant from foreign help. Average salary is about 300 DEM.

Q: If your country's economic situation is so bad, why the Warajevo is freeware and not shareware?
A: First, during the war any money transaction between Bosnia and other countries was broken, so shareware concept was impossible. The money transactions with a small amount of money are still very complicated between Bosnia and other countries. Second, we think that if Warajevo was shareware instead of freeware, it would not become so popular...